GL’s 5G Core Network Emulation Test Solution

GAITHERSBURG, Md., Aug. 05, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — GL Communications Inc., a global leader in telecom test and measurement solutions, addressed the press regarding their 5G Core Network Test solutions.

[For illustration refer to, https://www.gl.com/images/Newsletter/5G-Core-Network-Emulator-Testing-Newsletter.jpg]

Overview

GL’s Message Automation Protocol Simulation (MAPS™) software emulation suite can emulate a multitude of different protocols spanning Time-Domain Multiplexing (CAS, SS7, ISDN, etc.), Voice over IP (SIP, RTP, SIGTRAN, etc.), and Wireless (5G, 4G LTE, 3G) domains. It can be used to test and troubleshoot network infrastructure, software applications and User Equipment (UE) and ensure compliance.

“The End-to-End 5G network comprises the 5G Access Network (gNB), Access and Mobility Management Function (AMF), Authentication Server Function (AUSF), Network Slice Selection Function (NSSF), Unified Data Management (UDM), Session Management Function (SMF), Equipment Identity Register (EIR), Short Message Service Function (SMSF), Network Exposure Function (NEF), and User Plane Function (UPF) connected to Data Server or Application Functions and EPC/IMSS core for interoperability. The core network and all its underlying entities can be accurately tested for functionalities and performance using the MAPS™ framework”, said Vijay Kulkarni, CEO of GL Communications.

The MAPS™ application provides fully configurable multiple base stations with tens of thousands of UEs along with 5G core elements. This approach allows to replace any element in the network with the device under test and carry out wrap-around testing.

Key Features

  • Supports Control plane signaling and User plane traffic
  • Emulation of all 5G interfaces (N1N2, N4, N8, N10, N11, N12, N13, N14, N17, N20, N21, N29, and N51)
  • Supports HTTP2/ TLS and Rest APIs emulation in 5G Core
  • MAPS™ 5G Lab – End-to-End Testing using real and Simulated UE’s
  • MAPS™ 5G Interworking Lab – Testing interworking calls between 5G, IMS, 4G, 3G, and 2G networks
  • Supports wrap-around testing to completely test any 5G node functionality
  • Traffic generation and verification over 5G, including VoNR (Voice), FTP, Web (HTTP), and more with additional licenses – Mobile traffic core – GTP and Mobile Traffic Core – Gateway
  • Generate tens of thousands of UE Signaling (Load Testing)
  • Generate and process NGAP/NAS (valid and invalid) messages
  • Insertion of impairments to create invalid messages
  • Customization of call flow and message templates using Script and Message Editor
  • Ready-to-use scripts for quick testing
  • Scripted call generation and automated call reception
  • Framework Provides Call Statistics and Events Status, Automation, Remote access, and Schedulers to run tests 24/7

About GL Communications Inc.,
GL Communications is a global provider of telecom test and measurement solutions. GL’s solutions are used to verify the quality and reliability of Wireless (5G, 4G, 3G, 2G), SONET/SDH, Ethernet/IP, TDM, and PSTN networks.

Warm Regards,
Vikram Kulkarni, PhD
Phone: 301-670-4784 x114
Email: info@gl.com

Biden Tests Negative for COVID, White House Physician Says

President Joe Biden has tested negative for COVID-19 after testing positive with a breakthrough case for days, the White House physician said on Saturday.

The Democratic president will remain in isolation until he tests negative on a second test, Dr. Kevin O’Connor said in a letter.

Biden, 79, emerged from isolation on Wednesday after testing positive for COVID-19 for the first time on July 21. He tested positive again on July 30 in what O’Connor described as a “rebound” case seen in a small percentage of people who take the antiviral drug Paxlovid.

Source: Voice of America

Milk Use and Lactose Tolerance Didn’t Develop Hand in Hand in Europe

Early Europeans drank milk for thousands of years before they evolved the ability to fully digest it as adults, scientists say.

New results published in the journal Nature suggest that being able to digest the lactose in milk wasn’t usually much of an advantage for ancient people in Europe. Instead, the new study suggests that famine and disease made lactose intolerance deadly.

The new discovery challenges the long-standing assumption that dairy farming spread through ancient populations alongside the genetic quirks that prevent adults from losing the ability to digest lactose.

Like other young mammals, human children produce an enzyme called lactase that breaks down lactose. The gene for lactase usually turns off in adulthood because aside from humans, adult mammals don’t drink milk.

Without lactase, lactose from milk ends up feeding gut microbes that produce gas, which can cause uncomfortable digestive problems.

“You’ll get some cramps. You’ll get some diarrhea. Might fart a bit more. It might be unpleasant for you,” said geneticist Mark Thomas of University College London, who led the genetics work for the new study. “It might be embarrassing, but you’re not going to die.”

But when our ancient ancestors suffered through plagues or famines, getting diarrhea from drinking milk was probably more than just uncomfortable, the authors suggest.

“Then we’re talking about a life-threatening condition,” Thomas said.

About one-third of people alive today have a genetic variant that keeps their lactase gene from turning off. This trait has evolved independently multiple times in the ancestors of people now living in parts of Africa, the Middle East, South Asia and Europe.

Scientists long assumed that lactase persistence evolved alongside the spread of dairy farming, which happened over a few thousand years beginning around 7000 BC.

However, earlier studies revealed that lactase persistence was vanishingly rare in Europe until about 3,000 years ago. But after that, it took only a few thousand years for the trait to become widespread — the blink of an eye in evolutionary time.

Why this trait would evolve so quickly was a mystery.

“Lactase persistence has been under enormous amounts of natural selection over the last eight to ten thousand years … more than any other part of the genome in Europeans,” said Thomas. “It was, for a very long period of time, the one trait upon which life and death pivoted more than any other. … It’s insane. It just defies explanation.”

Searching for an explanation, the authors sought to reconstruct the history of milk use in the region over the past 9,000 years. They examined fat residues left on more than 7,000 pottery shards collected at 550 archaeological sites across Europe.

“When people were cooking … fat liquefies and then penetrates into the pores of the pottery,” said organic geochemist and study co-author Mélanie Roffet-Salque of the University of Bristol. “It’s quite stunning, really. But thousands of years later when archaeologists excavate a piece of pottery that had been discarded and then we analyze the pottery, it’s still there.”

The pottery shards showed that milk consumption was widespread across most of Europe for thousands of years before most Europeans became lactose tolerant.

Studying health data on modern Britons, the researchers didn’t find any evidence that drinking milk hurts the health of modern adults who don’t produce lactase.

Surprisingly, using data on ancient population fluctuations to approximate when and where ancient Europeans dealt with famine and disease, the researchers found that sickness and hunger might explain the evolution of lactase persistence better than milk consumption.

Famine could have forced ancient people to drink more milk than usual as other food sources ran out. And both malnutrition and disease could have made lactose-induced diarrhea very dangerous. Severe diarrhea can kill — it is still the second leading cause of death for children under 5 worldwide.

Shevan Wilkin, a biomolecular archaeologist at the University of Zurich who reviewed the new paper, said the research was an important step forward but that she’s not necessarily convinced that famine and disease alone can explain the evolution of lactase persistence.

“The reason I don’t know if I think they’re right, I also don’t know if I think they’re wrong, is before 2,000 years ago, there were absolutely times of famine,” Wilkin said.

Thomas said he’d like to see similar studies done in Africa, where lactase persistence evolved independently three different times. Wilkin agreed, noting that Europe is over-studied, and that future research should focus on other regions, including central Asia, where people drink lots of milk despite lacking a genetic variant that keeps lactase from turning off in adults.

“I think it’d be really interesting to apply this [in] multiple places,” said Wilkin. “It’s just such a cool and ambitious undertaking, and I think it’s really going to spur a ton of new studies.”

Source: Voice of America